Pyrolytic Graphite

Pyrolytic graphite sheets (PGS) are a synthetically made thermal interface material with high thermal conductivity and a thin graphite film structure (thickness measured in microns). Available as sheets, rolls, or custom die cut into shapes.

Pyrolytic graphite sheets (also commonly referred to as thermal interface graphite pads or graphite film) is created from a high temperature sintering process, heating a polymer film to its decomposition temperature in a vacuum and allowing it to carbonize then graphitize until ultimately left with a highly oriented graphite material. Graphite's sheet-like crystals known as graphene are stacked on top of each other, allowing for extremely high in-plane thermal conductivity (x-y direction) compared to its through-plane thermal conductivity (z direction).

Pyrolytic graphite sheets can be used in many industries, including but not limited to Mobile Electronics, Aerospace, Automotive, and Telecommunications, all of which benefit from the improved thermal conductive performance. Due to the thin size of the graphite film, an ideal use case is as a flexible graphite heat spreader for supplemental thermal management in areas where space is limited. This material is RoHS compliant and can be die-cut, press-formed, or laminated with polyester to improve electrical insulation and/or pressure-sensitive adhesive tape for easy attachment to a surface.

Advantages of HPMS Pyrolytic Graphite

With the rapidly growing demands of data consumption and communication as well as the shrinking size of modern-day devices, especially in the emerging world of 5G and the Internet of things (IoT), the need for improved thermal management and heat dissipation solutions are becoming more and more urgent. To address these concerns, pyrolytic graphite sheets offer up to five times the thermal conductivity of copper, at only a fraction of the weight. There are numerous advantages of pyrolytic graphite sheets, especially when compared to their metallic counterparts.

  • High in-plane thermal conductivity up to 1800 W/m-K.
  • Extremely thin: offered in thicknesses of 0.012mm to 0.100mm (12 microns to 100 microns).
  • Lightweight when compared to its metallic counterparts such as aluminum or copper.
  • Highly anisotropic structure allows for high thermal conductivity only in the x-y plane.
  • Reliable performance from -40°C to 400°C (-40°F to 752°F).
  • EMI shielding and absorbing to protect sensitive electronic parts.
  • Can be die-cut into customizable shapes.
  • Offered with adhesives for fast installation (peel-and-stick attachment).
  • Can be laminated with plastics, metals, or foam to improve performance.
  • Can be used to reduce skin temperature and eliminate "hot spots."
  • Can replace thermal grease or phase change thermal interface materials. Eliminates the need for fans and heat pipes.
  • Offers excellent flexibility (withstands repeated bending).

HPMS pyrolytic graphite sheets offer thermal conductivity up to 1800 W/m-K and are very thin, which allows for easy attachment to a variety of heat sink or component surfaces. The high thermal conductivity graphite can easily be used for thermal management in electronics (adhesives available for easier applying) or other space-limiting areas. The material is flexible and can be used in a wide range of temperatures.

  • Consumer Electronics

    Pyrolytic graphite film is an excellent thermal interface material and can be used as a graphite thermal pad for a number of applications, including mobile devices, communication base stations, laptops, tablets, computer servers, gaming stations, memory modules, semiconductors, CPUs, GPUS, printed circuit boards, high power batteries, and solar power systems. It is a choice thermal interface alternative to thermal paste and thermal grease, offering much easier application as well as clean up. It provides superior heat spreading for battery cooling and digital displays in mobile devices and electronics.

  • Aerospace and Medical devices

    Flexible graphite heat spreaders offer superior thermal capabilities for critical electronics and sensors. EMI shielding protects sensitive applications.

  • Automotive

    Pyrolytic graphite thermal interface pads provide heat spreading for engine management, electronic suspension, braking systems, communication and multimedia systems, and vehicle lighting and controls. For hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles (EV), these lightweight thermal graphite pads and films offer battery thermal management and cooling solutions. These thermally conductive graphite pads offer thermal spreading for important LIDAR and infrared cameras and sensors used in semi-autonomous vehicles.

  • Displays

    Graphite film is an excellent thermal management solution for LED, LCD, or OLED displays. Due to how light and thin the sheets are, graphite film is a perfect choice for TVs, as the trend is towards flatter and thinner devices.

Typical Properties of HPMS Pyrolytic Graphite
Property Unit HGS-012 HGS-017 HGS-025 HGS-040 HGS-050 HGS-070 HGS-100
Color - Silver gray
Thickness mm 0.012 0.017 0.025 0.040 0.050 0.070 0.100
Density g/cc 2.1 2.1 1.92 1.8 1.7 1.20 0.85
Typical Thermal Conductivity, In-Plane W/m-K 1800 1800 1750 1400 1350 1300 1050
Typical Thermal Conductivity, Through-Plane W/m-K 10 11 18 20 20 20 26
Thermal Diffusivity cm²/s 10 - 12 10 - 11 9 - 10 9 - 10 8 - 10 8 - 10 8 - 10
Tensile Strength Mpa 40 40 25 20 20 20 20
Electrical Conductivity S/cm 20000 20000 20000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Operating Temperature °C -40 to 400
Heat Resistance °C 400
Specific Heat @50°C J/kg-°K 850
RoHS compliant Y/N Yes